The Written Examination (Sample Questions) of the
Mandarin and Cantonese Court Interpreters' Certification Examination

English Vocabulary (20 Questions)

PART I: CHOOSING THE CORRECT WORD OR PHRASE

DIRECTIONS: The following questions are designed to measure your vocabulary skills. For each word in bold type, select the definition from the choices provided (a, b, c, or d) that means the same or nearly the same. Darken the box on your answer sheet corresponding to the single best answer for each of the following questions.

1. apprehension

a. cheerful
b. gloomy
c. fear
d. stubbornness

The correct answer should be (c) as the word apprehension means fear.

2. trepidation

a. contentment
b. dread
c. prompt
d. voluntary

The correct answer should be (b) as the word trepidation means feeling of alarm or dread.

3. fallacious

a. disqualify
b. truthful
c. refuse
d. erroneous

The correct answer should be (d) as the word fallacious means erroneous.

4. equivalent

a. difference
b. tantamount
c. enormous
d. excitement

The correct answer is (b) as tantamount means equivalent

5. contract

a. covenant
b. tent
c. dishonesty
d. cave

The correct answer is (a) as contract and covenant are synonyms

6. zeal

a. energy
b. happiness
c. passion
d. loyalty

The correct answer is (c) as zeal and passion are synonyms

7. preclude

a. include
b. convene
c. instigate
d. prevent

The correct answer is (d) because preclude means prevent.

8. plebeian

a. plenary
b. common
c. unusual
d foreign

The correct answer is (b) because plenary means common.

9. prolix

a. perfect
b. insane
c. verbose
d. succinct

The correct answer is (c) because prolix and verbose have the same meaning.

10. accede

a. access
b. bypass
c. discuss
d. agree

The correct answer is (d) because to accede means to agree.

PART II: ANTONYMS

DIRECTIONS: The following questions are designed to measure your vocabulary skills. For each word in bold type, select the definition from the choices provided (a, b, c, or d) that means the opposite or nearly the opposite. Darken the box on your answer sheet corresponding to the single best answer for each of the following questions.

11. Candid

a. honest
b. sweet
c. deceitful
d. brave

The correct answer is (c) because candid means the opposite of deceitful.

12. Insular

a. separated
b. unbiased
c. insulated
d. straightforward

The correct answer is (b) because insular also means narrow-minded. Unbiased means the opposite of narrow-minded.

13.Irascible

a. cantankerous
b. surly
c. amicable
d. irresponsible

The correct answer is (c) because irascible means irritating. Amicable means the opposite.

14.Adulterate

a. mingle
b. separate
c. purity
d. youth

The correct answer is (c) because adulterate is to make impure.

15.Amalgamate

a. divide
b. pressure
c. blow
d. blend

The correct answer is (a) because to amalgamate is to blend. To divide is doing the opposite.

16. Ensnare

a. agree
b. release
c. break
d. deceit

The correct answer is (b) because ensnare means to entrap. To release means the opposite.

17. Equivocal

a. equivalent
b. ambiguous
c. doubtful
d. certain

The correct answer is (d) because equivocal means ambiguous.

18. Explicit

a. display
b. define
c. explain
d. unclear

The correct answer is (d) because explicit has the opposite meaning of unclear.

19.Extraneous

a. extended
b. strange
c. tedious
d. essential

The correct answer is (d) because extraneous means irrelevant.

20.Unreasonable

a. paradoxical
b. meaningful
c. logical
d. mentally ill

The correct answer is (c) because unreasonable may mean illogical.

SECTION 2

CHINESE VOCABULARY
PART I: CHOOSING THE CORRECT WORD OR PHRASE


DIRECTIONS: The following questions are designed to measure your Chinese vocabulary skills. For each word in bold type, choose the definition from the choices provided (a, b, c, or d) that means the same or nearly the same. Darken the box on your answer sheet corresponding to the single best answer for each of the following questions.

21. 拘提

a. 提问
b. 拘抬
c. 逮捕
d. 执行

The correct answer is (c) because拘提 means逮捕.

22.强制

a. 强力
b. 控制
c. 强行
d. 强大

The correct answer is (c) because强制means强行.

23.拍定

a. 拍案
b. 肯定
c. 拍击
d. 成交

The correct answer is (d) because拍定 has similar meanings with成交

24.执行

a. 执事
b. 办理
c. 法规
d. 约定

The correct answer is (b) because执行 means办理

25.制约

a. 制造
b. 约定
c. 控制
d. 质疑

The correct answer is (c) because制约 means控制

26.担保

a. 担负
b. 自保
c. 保证
d. 提保

The correct answer is (c) because担保 means保证

27.民工

a. 人民工
b. 居民工
c. 农民工
d. 民航工

The correct answer is (c) because民工 indicates农民工

28.背书

a. 复习
b. 准备
c. 签字
d. 妥协

The correct answer is (c) because背书 means签字

29.封顶

a. 盖住
b. 竣工
c. 盖顶
d. 结束

The correct answer is (b) because封顶 means竣工

30.赃物

a. 肮脏
b. 陪葬
c. 不法之财
d. 礼物

The correct answer is (c) because脏物 means不法之财

PART II: ANTONYMS

DIRECTIONS: The following questions are designed to measure your vocabulary skills. For each word in bold type, select the definition from the choices provided (a, b, c, or d) that means the opposite or nearly the opposite. Darken the box on your answer sheet corresponding to the single best answer for each of the following questions.


31. 滥用

a.使用
b.实用
c.适用
d.施用

The correct answer is (c) because滥用 has the opposite meaning with适用

32. 控告

a. 祷告
b. 转告
c. 起诉
d. 撤诉

The correct answer is (d) because控告 and撤诉 have the opposite meanings.

33. 大方

a. 方大
b. 小圆
c. 小气
d. 气小

The correct answer is (c).

34. 赞成

a. 减少
b. 诬陷
c. 否决
d. 批评

The correct answer is (c)

35. 富裕

a. 贫民
b. 富强
c. 软弱
d. 贫穷

The correct answer is (d)

36. 谋杀

a. 谋财
b. 杀人
c. 自杀
d. 他杀

The correct answer is (d)

37. 龌龊

a. 光明磊落
b. 牙齿整齐
c. 尴尬
d. 慷慨

The correct answer is (a)

38. 苛刻

a. 优厚
b. 刻薄
c. 优良
d. 刁钻

The correct answer is (a)

39. 好事多磨

a. 好景不长
b. 多灾多难
c. 一路顺风
d.一帆风顺

The correct answer is (d)

40. 华而不实

a. 虚心假意
b. 内外不一
c. 表里如一
d. 忠心耿耿

The correct answer is (c)

SECTION 3
ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND WORD USAGE


DIRECTIONS: The following questions are designed to measure your knowledge of correct grammar and word usage. For each question, select the underlined part of the sentence which contains a grammatical or logical mistake or the best selection for the underlined part.

41. Despite the enormous gravitational pull of the Moon, the shape of the Earth actually changes as the largest oceans are "pulled" toward the Moon.
a. Despite
b. gravitational pull
c. as
d. toward

The correct answer is (a)

42. Only with the invention of refrigerators were most Americans able to have begun to consume fresh meat.

a. refrigerators
b. were
c. to have begun
d. meat

The correct answer is (c)

43. Abacus Chinese Translation Services believes that ________________________________.

a. consecutive interpreters failed the oral exam more.
b. consecutive interpretation has much higher failures on the oral exam
c. consecutive interpretation is a much more difficult section in the oral exam than other sections.
d. consecutive interpretation is difficultier on the oral exam.

The correct answer is (c)

44. The GDP, or gross domestic product of a country is a figure expressing in monetary terms that represents the entire economic value of the goods and services produced in that country.

a. a figure
b. expressing
c. economic
d. goods

The correct answer is (b)

45. The Washington Post recently reported that the ______________ a revolution in translation technologies. The attempt to base machine translation on language rules has been replaced by statistics.

a. growing internet users forged
b. internet growing users
c. growth of the internet has facilitated
d. growing internet has facilitated

The correct answer is (c)

46. One of the first state of the United States, Rhode Island is the smallest of all the states and is located north of the largest city in the United States, New York City.

a. state
b. the smallest
c. is located
d. north

The correct answer is (a)

47. Critical to understand the phenomenon of human intelligence is the notion that not all human thought patterns are either predictable or rational.

a. understand
b. not all
c. are
d. or

The correct answer is (a)

48. Google's Translate project is a good example of machine translation by statistics. The software can _________ translate text among 41 languages in any subject domain.

a. collective
b. Piccadilly
c. photographical
d. instantaneously

The correct answer is (d)

49. A criminal case in Maryland that was dismissed for lack of a interpreter has been widely covered in the news media

a. A criminal case
b. was dismissed
c. a interpreter
d. has been

The correct answer is (c)

50. Information on how to tap into available language resources are vital to the effective functions of our court systems.

a. how to tap into
b. available language resources
c. are vital
d. effective functions

The correct answer is (c). It should be “is vital”

From questions 51 to 60, choose the answer which contains a grammatical mistake.

51.

a. Nation-wide attention was focused on so-called three-strikes laws in 1994 when California voters approved an initiative mandating prison terms of 25-years-to-life for defendants those whom convicting of a third felony.
b. The Congolese Government, of course, came out of many years of war, and that is very destabilizing to societies and very often human rights are considered a luxury during a wartime.
c. Angola's rapidly expanding petroleum industry reached its OPEC cap of 2 million barrels per day (bpd) in 2008.
d. Angola's crude oil production is now the second highest in Africa. Exports to Asian countries have grown rapidly in recent years, particularly to China. Diamonds make up most of Angola's remaining exports, with yearly production at 6 million carats.

The corrected answer is (a). It should be “defendants convicted of a third felony”

52.

a. Illegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country.
b. One motive of illegal immigration is to escape civil war or repression in the country of origin.
c. Illegal immigrants may also be trafficked. After the end of the legal international slave trade by the European nations and the United States in the early 19th century, the illegal importation of slaves have been continued, albeit at much reduced levels.
d. Immigrants from nations that do not have an automatic visa agreements, or who would not otherwise qualify for a visa, often cross the borders illegally in some areas like the U.S.-Mexico border, the Mona Channel between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the Strait of Gibraltar, Fuerteventura and the Strait of Otranto.

The correct answer is (c). It should be “has continued”.

53.

a. Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.
b. Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product.
c. Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance (such as lime) and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek and sucked of its juices.
d. Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation resulting in approximately the same proportion of the drug being absorbed: 30 to 60%. Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects.

The corrected answer is (d). It should be “ingestion and insufflation result in”

54.

a. False imprisonment is a tort, and possibly a criminal, wherein a person is intentionally confined without legal authority
b. To prevail under a false imprisonment claim, a plaintiff must prove: (1) willful detention; (2) without consent; and (3) without authority of law.
c. In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away of a person against the person's will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment, a confinement without legal authority.
d. Kidnapping for money is almost non-existent in the United States of America today, due in great part to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's aggressive stance toward kidnapping.

The correct answer is (a). “criminal” should be “crime”

55.

a. In business, Chinese Walls are information barriers implemented within firms to separate and isolate persons who make investment decisions from persons who are privy to undisclosed material information that may influence those decisions.
b. The term "Chinese Wall" may refer to the Great Wall of China, and its scale and effectiveness at separating one side from the other.
c. Chinese Walls are used in law firms when one part of the firm, representing a party on a deal or litigation, is separated from another part with contrary interests.
d. "Chinese Wall" is one such piece of legal flotsam that should be emphatically abandoned. The term has an ethnic focus which many would considering a subtle form of linguistic discrimination.

The correct answer is (d). “considering” should be “consider”

56.

a. Prostitution describes sexual intercourse in exchange for renumeration. The legal status of prostitution varies in different countries, from punishable by death to complete legality.
b. Prostitutes are not the only people who have sex for money. Porn actors and actresses get paid for having sex, but they are both paid by a third party, the porn producer. A prostitute is paid by the person with whom she/he has sex.
c. Federal law prohibits United States citizens or permanent residents to engage in international travel with the purpose or effect of having commercial sex with a person under the age of 18, or any sex with a person under the age of 16; facilitating such travel is also illegal.
d. In colloquial usage, the word "prostitute" is sometimes generalized to mean the selling of one's services for a cause thought to be unworthy, in the sense of "prostituting oneself" or "whoring oneself".

The correct answer is (a). “renumeration” should be “remuneration”

57.

a. Translation must take into account a number of constraints, including context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, their idioms and the like.
b. The question of whether particular words are untranslatable is often debated, with lists of "untranslatable" words production from time to time.
c. The words that are truly difficult to translate are often the small, common words, whose precise meaning depends heavily on context.
d. A language may contain expressions which refer to concepts that do not exist in another language.

The correct answer is (b). “words production” should be “words produced”.

58.

a. Wisdom teeth are third molars that usually appear between the ages of 16 and 24 (although they may appear when older, younger, or may not appear at all). They are commonly extracted when they affect other teeth—this impaction is colloquially known as "coming in sideways."
b. A wisdom tooth is extracted to correct an actual problem or to prevent problems that may come up in the future.
c. Prevention removal of the third molars is a common practice in developed countries despite the lack of scientific data to support this practice.
d. While it is clear that symptomatic impacted wisdom teeth should be surgically removed, it appears that extracting asymptomatic, disease-free wisdom teeth is not advisable due to the risk of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.

The correct answer is (c). “Prevention” should be “preventive”

59

a. In common law legal systems, the law is created and/or refined by judges: a decision in the case currently pending depends on decisions in previous cases and affects the law to be applied in future cases.
b. When there is no authoritative statement of the law, common law judges have the authority and duty to "make" law by creating precedent.
c. The body of precedent is called "common law" and it binds future decisions. In future cases, when parties disagree on what the law is, an "ideal" common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is bond to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision (this principle is known as stare decisis).
d. If, however, the court finds that the current dispute is fundamentally distinct from all previous cases, it will decide as a "matter of first impression." Thereafter, the new decision becomes precedent, and will bind future courts under the principle of stare decisis.

The correct answer is (c). “bond” should be “bound”

60.

a. Civil law (also known as Continental law, or Romano-Germanic law) is the predominant system of law in the world. Civil law as a legal system is often compared with common law. The main difference that is usually drawn between the two systems is that common law draws abstract rules from specific cases, whereas civil law starts with abstract rules, which judges must then apply to the various cases before them.
b. The original difference is that, historically, common law was law developed by custom, beginning before there were any written laws and continuing to be applied by courts after there were written laws, too, whereas civil law developed out of the Roman law of Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law).
c. Chinese is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. For most of the history of China, it has been based on the Confucian philosophy of social control through moral education, as well as the Legalist emphasis on codified law and criminal sanction.
d. The law of the United States largely originally was derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. However, the supreme law of the land is the United States Constitution and, under the Constitution's Supremacy Clause, laws enacted by Congress and treaties to which the U.S. is a part of. These form the basis for federal laws under the federal constitution in the United States, circumscribing the boundaries of the jurisdiction of federal law and the laws in the fifty U.S. states and territories.

The correct answer is (d). “largely originally was” should be “was originally largely”

SECTION 4
CHINESE GRAMMAR AND WORD USAGE


说明:每个句子中有一个或两个空儿,请在A B C D四个答案中选择惟一恰当的填上(在答卷上的字母上画一横道)。

例如:
.我昨天买了一________钢笔。
A 件
B 块
C 支
D 条
我们只能说:“我昨天买了一支钢笔”,所以惟一恰当的答案是C,


61 他随身带了一________橡皮泥。
A 张
B 只
C 块
D 棵

The correct answer is (c)

62 我茫然望着这张________笑非笑的脸。
A 似
B 像
C 是
D 又

The correct answer is (a)

63 三毛的到来,________张家原先宁静的午休时间也变得热闹起来。
A 被
B 请
C 愿
D 使

The correct answer is (d)

64 人活________要有诚信,有追求。
A 了
B 完
C 着
D 过

The correct answer is (c)

65 ________疾病、药物和营养缺乏引起的头发变白,经治疗可以恢复原色。
A 由
B 凭
C 以
D 据

The correct answer is (a)

66 在这些方案中最引人关注的无非就是对流通股股东作出多少补偿以换取流通权,即所谓的_____.
A 价值
B 价格
C 对价
D 等价

The correct answer is (c)

67 西方学者认为,人天生是自由的,但又需要一套法规以维持社会秩序,因此创立了法律,并建立了负责执行法律的_______机构(政府)
A 公开
B 攻关
C 公共
D 公有

The correct answer is (c)

68 与大陆法系相比,英美法系多采不成文法,尤其是判例法,强调“___________”原则;审判中采取当事人主义和陪审团制度,对于司法程序比较重视;法律制度和法学理论的发展往往依赖司法实务人员(尤其是高等法院法官)的推动,即法官实质上通过做出判决起到了立法的效果。普通法系的立法精神在于:除非某一项目的法例因为客观环境的需要或为了解决争议而需要以成文法制定,否则,只需要根据当地过去对于该项目的习惯而评定谁是谁非。
A 先入为主
B 以理服人
C 遵循先例
D 情理大于法理

The correct answer is (c)

69 电子书________叫书,却处处给人以电器制品之感,到底算不算书呢?
A 既然
B 因为
C 如果
D 虽然

The correct answer is (d)

70 有观点认为,由于欧陆法系具有集中化、以立法权为中心的特点,因此有学者将欧陆法系与专制王权相联系;而将分散化、以司法权为中心的英美法系与共和制相联系。从历史上看,欧陆法系的国家______多为专制王权治下,但这种观点在理论上有值得商榷之处,且不能为欧陆法系的学者所接受。
A 虽然
B 确实
C 所以
D 因为

The correct answer is (a)

自71题至80题,请选出语法或文字有问题的句子。

71 
a. 由于普通法系主要由案例累积而成,而并非由政府立法机关编写法典而成,因此必须确立一种制度,确保每位法官都跟随以前法官判案的原则,否则每位法官都随自己的心意判案,法律便不能成形。近代所有普通法的法院均自我规定(这种规定或习惯拉丁文称为stare decisis),下级法庭必须遵从上级法庭以往的判例;同级的法官的判例虽然互相没有必然约束力,但如果没有很好的理由,一般都会互相参考,以法律术语来说是有 “说服力”(persuasive) 的案例。
b. 至于大陆法系或称欧陆法系,一向都很重视编写法典,强调法典必须完整,以致每一个法律范畴的每一个细节,都在法典里有明文规定。举例来说,无论在普通法系的国家还是大陆法系的国家的法律中,都有一个相同的法律原则,便是有效的合同必须包括 “要约” (offer) 和 “承诺” (acceptance),否则在法律上便不能算是合同。在普通法系的国家里,这个法律原则必定可以在许多判例中找到,但可能并没有任何一条国家法案会列出这原则。可是在许多大陆法系的国家的法典里,都可能找到以下一条: “当事人订立合同,采取要约、承诺方式。” 大陆法系便是采用这个方法,把这个法律原则,清楚明确地写出来。
c. 就单以有没有法典这个问题来作比较,英国可算是最不依赖法典的国家,就算连国家的宪法,都是依赖判例发展而来,而没有一本完整的文献称为宪法。美国虽然也是普通法系国家,但由于历史原因,在立国时已经有宪法。而且,近代美国也会将某些范畴的普通法写成法典,以配合近数十年来的经济和科技发展。至于香港,《香港基本法》便是小宪法。相比之下,中国大陆和台湾、澳门、法国、意大利、葡国、德国等使用大陆法系的国家或地区便是依靠法典及其立法思想进行运作。
d. 在普通法系国家,法官的判词能够影响法律的发展,因此在挑选法官时着重掌握和运用案例的技巧,可以说,普通法系国家要求的法官的素质正好与成功的私人执业律师的要素一致,因此普通法系国家在任命法官时多数会从私人执业多年而且成功的律师中选任,而有不少普通法系律师也视法官为事业发展中光荣的折裂点。

The correct answer is (d). “折裂” should be “转折”

72 
a. 美国联邦政府本身有三个分支,互相监督和制衡:
* 立法机关:即国会,由众议院和参议院两部分组成。拥有联邦立法�������,宣战权,条约批准权,政府采购权和很少行使的弹劾权;
* 行政机关:即总统,总统提名和参议院批准的内阁官员及其下属,负责行使基于联邦法律的治理权;
* 司法机关:即最高法院和较低级别的联邦法院,法官由总统提名并参议院批准;拥有释法权和推翻违宪的法律的权力。
b. 美国国会实行两院立法体制。众议院设435个席位代表各自的国会选区,任期2年。众议院席位根据人口分布,每10年重新划分一次,每个州最少都会分配到1个众议院席位:目前有7个州只有1个议席,人口最多的加利福尼亚州则有高达53个议席。而无论人口众寡,每个州在参议院都有2个席位,加起来共一百席,任期6年;每隔2年,三分之一的参议员必须重选。
c. 在联邦体制内,州与联邦政府的关系很复杂。根据美国法律,各州是主权实体。然而,在美国内战和“德克萨斯对怀特案”建立的规则是,州无权脱离联邦;根据宪法,也无外交权。美国联邦法律在经过宪法授权的领域要高于各州所制订的不同的法律,但是联邦政府的权力只能在宪法规定的范围之内行使;所有未授予联邦政府的权力由州政府和人民自行保留。
d. 最近几年,联邦政府在医疗、教育、福力、交通、住宅以及城市发展等领域开始扮演越来越重要的角色。各州的宪法与联邦宪法基本相符,除了在一些细节上有所不同,其中包括了人权和政府组织。而在商业、金融、公共服务和福力机构等方面,州宪法往往比联邦宪法更为详细。

The correct answer is (d). The “福力”’s should be “福利”

73 
a. 虽然美国没有法定官方语言,英语是事实上的国家语言。据2003年统计,约2亿1480万(81.6%)的五岁以上人口在家只说英语。英语是最通用的交流语言,掌握一定程度的英语也是移民归化的要求之一。一些美国人呼吁把英语提升为官方语言,有27个州已经通过地方法律确保英语的官方地位;有3个州承认其他语言与英语有平行地位:路易斯安那州的法语,夏威夷州的夏威夷语和新墨西哥州的西班牙语。
b. 《天演论》是严复翻译自赫胥黎名为《进化论与伦理学》(Evolution and Ethics)的演讲与论文集。这本书在1897年首刊于《国闻报》的增刊《国闻汇编》上。除了宣扬近化论思想之外,在书中严复也提到了译事三难:信、达、雅。
c. 晚年的严复是一名保守派人物,他发起筹安会,支援袁世凯复辟帝制,又同情张勋复辟。他嘲笑胡适等新文学革命派是“如春鸟歌虫,听其白鸣自止可耳。”
d. 所谓同声传译(Simultaneous Interpreting),是指译员以几乎与讲者同时的方式,做口语翻译,也就是在讲者仍在说话时,同声传译员便“同时”进行翻译。由于同声传译员必须一边接收来自讲者的信息,一边将信息尽快传递给听者,因此“一心多用”这样的分神能力(Multi-tasking),是译员的训练重点。

The correct answer is (b). “近化论” should be “进化论”

74
a. 英语口语是被英语国家人民普遍应用的口头交流的语言形式。英语口语是通过声音通常传播的。英语文学作品中也常以书面形式记叙英语口语。
b. 英语以它巨大的词汇量而著称,很容易引入专业术语和输入新词到日常使用中。另外,俚语也为旧词换上了新的含义。
c. 英国作为一个重要的贸易实体、经济强国以及金融中心,是世界第五大经济体系,也是全球最富裕、经济最发达和生活水平最高的国家之一。
d. 由于过去大英帝国的扩张,英语几乎扩散到世界每一个角落,是世界上学习最��遍的第二语言,亦是被普遍认同的世界性语言。

The correct answer is (a). “英语口语是通过声音通常传播的”。should be”英语口语通常是通过声音传播的。”

75
a. 美国法律有四种来源,它们分别是宪法法、行政法、成文法与普通法(包括案例法)。最重要的法律来源是美国宪法。所有其他法律都归宪法管理并低于宪法。任何法律不得与宪法相抵触。譬如国会通过与宪法相冲突的法律,最高法院可判定该法违宪。
b. 特别地,一部法律并不会被判违宪而“自动”消失;它必须由一部后继法进行删除。很多联邦和州的法律在被判定违宪之后仍然留在法典中。但是按照“遵循先例原则”,一般下级法院不会引用违宪的法律,如果使用也会被最高法院撤销判决。
c. 美国联邦法律来源于宪法给予国会的为某些特定目的如规范贸易而颁布法律的权力。几乎所有的法律都被编入《美国法典》。很多法律给予行政机关制订行政法规的权力,这些法规刊载于《联邦公报》并被收录入《联邦行政法规大全》。
d. 美国的五十个洲都是独立的主权实体,拥有自己的洲宪法和��政府。它��保留制定除联邦宪法、联邦法律和联邦参议院批准的国际条约规定之外的任何法律的全权。

The correct answer is (d). “洲“应为 “州”

76
a. 几乎所有的州都以英国普通法作为立法基础,除了路易斯安那州特立独行、引人注目:路易斯安那州法律常受法国拿破仑法典的极大影响。随着岁月变迁各州法律之间变得大相径庭。
b. 在刑法方面,所有的州对关于“恶性犯罪”(higher crimes)(或重罪(felonies)),比如谋杀和强歼,都有相似的法律,虽然在刑罚方面千差万别。
c. 毒品是人类将具有功能性的药物任意使用。通常只是为了产生身体或心理上的娱乐目的而滥用药物,而非用来作生理或心理治疗之用,因此有人称之为娱乐性药物。
d. 摇头丸, 俗称快乐丸、ecstasy、E仔、fing头或狂喜,也有人直接简称e。它是一种安非他命类的精神科药物,主要功用是刺激脑部,使之能够快速释放大量的血清素,让使用者觉得社交能力提高、了解他人的能力提高、精力充沛、兴奋无比、身心舒畅。某些使用者的触觉会提高,从而使与他人的接触更愉悦,但实际上并不具备传说中的催情作用。
e. 海洛因属于鸦片毒品系列中最纯净的精制品。世界各国对海洛因控制相当严格,贩运海洛因属严重罪行,可判处终身监禁或死刑,但因它售价高昂,至今仍成为多国最常滥用的毒品。

The correct answer is (b). “歼“应为 “奸“

77.
a. 一般意义上,“汉语”这个词多指现代标准汉语,以北京音为标准音、北方方言为基础方言、典范白话文著作为语法规范。
b. 汉语是联合国规定的六种正式语言,亦为当今世界上使用人数最多的语言,也是目前学习人数增长最快的语言
c. 汉语作为以表意文字为文字系统的语言,文字高度的统一与规范,现代汉语有统一和规范的语法。
d. 文言文是中国的一种书面语言,主要包括以先秦的口语为基础而形成的书面语,以及模仿这种书面语而创作的历代作品。

The correct answer is (b). “汉语是联合国规定的六种正式语言” should be” 汉语是联合国规定的六种正式语言之一”

78.
a. 在20世纪之前,以汉字书写的文言文,在中国以及韩国、日本、越南,使用在几乎所有正式的文书上。
b. 20世纪之后,在中国,文言文的地位被普通话白话文取代,而其它国家则开始采用当地语言的书面语。
c. 文言文的缺点在于难懂、不易普及,要读懂文言文须经过适当的训练才能够了解其中的含意,而要写作文言文的难度更高,所以白话文运动后,中国文坛强调“我手写我口”、“能识字便能读文”的白话文渐渐的取代了文言文。
d. 汉语口语在不同地方的分歧是相当大的。从大的范围上说,如北京话、上海话、广州话等互通完全无法.

The answer is (d). 互通完全无法 should be 无法完全互通

79.
a. 从小的范围上说,汉语(尤其在中国大陆南方)“十里不同音”,浙江、福建甚至出现一个县有十数种不同口音的现象,即使在号称“相对统一”的北方方言内部,亦因为地域不同而存在较大的口音差异。
b. 但汉语又具有文字(书面语)和使用者(汉族)的高度统一性,这与世界上的大多数语言的情况是完全不一样的。
c. 在地理上的方言分歧也是很明显的。
d. 然而在中国南方的许多地区,尤其是山区,较小地理范围内可能存在相互口语交流困难的方言。举一个尖端的例子,如福建某地,相隔只有十公里的当地居民也许已经不能自如口头交流了

The correct answer is (d). 尖端 should be 极端.

80.
a. 汉语是世界上最古老的语言之一,是至今通用语言时间最长的语言之一。
b. 相传黄帝时中原有“万国”,夏朝时还有三千国,周初分封八百诸侯,而“五方之民,言语不通”
c. 秦统一天下之后,实行“车同轨,书同文,行同伦”,规范了文字,以小篆作为正式宫方文字。
d. 汉语也曾对其周边的国家的语言文字产生过重要影响,如日语、朝鲜语、越南语中都保留有大量的汉语借词以及汉语书写体系。

The correct answer is (c). 宫方 should be 官方.

SECTION 5
READING COMPREHENSION – ENGLISH


DIRECTIONS: The following questions are designed to measure your ability to read and understand written material. Each reading passage is followed by one or more questions about the material you have read. Base your answers only on the material you have read and not on any prior knowledge you may have of any of the topics addressed.


Although Helen Cole was convinced that her journal entries were not literature, they were seamlessly incorporated by her brother William into some of his most famous poems, altered only by his use of the first-person pronoun, the "I." The important question concerning the relationship between Helen and William, however, is not whether William's borrowings constituted exploitation, but rather how the relationship contributed to Helen’s inability to conceive of herself as a writer.

Traditionally in literature, the authorial self, the "I," is identifiably masculine. The dominated "other" is feminine. In William's poems, the "other" is usually Nature, often personified as Helen. While these literary roles helped to sustain the close relationship between the two in real life, they also reinforced Helen’s acceptance of the norms which defined her as "other." Thus, her access to authorial self-consciousness was blocked not just by the fact of her gender, but also by her accepted role in her brother's life and poetry.

81. The passage is primarily concerned with answering which of the following questions?

A. Whether Helen Cole was aware of her role in her relationship with William Cole
B. Whether Helen Cole was exploited by her brother's use of her journal entries
C. How William Cole altered Helen Cole 's writings for inclusion in his poems
D. How Helen Cole's relationship to her brother reinforced her assumptions about herself

The correct answer is (d)

82. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about Helen Cole's journal entries?

A. They are praiseworthy but not literature.
B. They are only about her relationship with her brother.
C. They are more moving than her brother's poetry.
D. They surpass her own estimation of their merit.

The correct answer is (d)


83. Which of the following best captures the meaning of the word "self-consciousness" as it is used in the final sentence of the passage?

A. appreciation by a writer of the value of critical reflection
B. awareness by a writer that one's perspectives may change
C. perception of the differences between an author's values and those of others
D. acceptance by a writer of his or her own identity as a writer

The correct answer is (d)

While most people believe Mandarin Chinese is a difficult language to learn, students at Los Angeles Chinese Learning Center, after two classes or two sessions of private lessons, often come to believe that Chinese is a very logical language, and it is easy to learn for English speakers. Many other Chinese learning students from around the world also tend to agree.

Mike Wright, after acquiring Spanish and German in high school and college, and after learning Mandarin in 1963, Japanese in 1967, and Arabic in 1973 in the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, states that "Mandarin is the easiest by far." It is "pretty easy for native English speakers, while Japanese is one of the most difficult". For example, he could "pretty much discuss any topic" when he arrived in Taiwan. On the contrary, after learning Japanese and spending a total of 7.5 years in Japan associating with "people who spoke little or no English", he never felt confident in the language. Same thing holds true for his fellow Defense Language Institute graduates, he says, including one who graduated from Japanese course with an average of 98, the highest on record. "He was quite angry when he arrived in Japan and found that he couldn't get around in the language as he had been able to do with Mandarin in Taiwan."

"The biggest impediment to learning Mandarin seems to be fear--sometimes caused by the teachers. I've studied quite a few languages, and none of them were as easy for me as Mandarin." Mike concludes.

David Tzeng, after learning Mandarin Chinese, German, French, Spanish, Japanese, and Italian, also confirms that Chinese grammar is the most simple one, while Japanese is actually the hardest language among the six.

Indeed, Chinese is easy because it has no irregular verbs or noun plurals to learn. Words have only a single form, with no suffixes for tense, number, case, etc. (There are some particles which work somewhat like tense endings, but they always take the same form, no matter what they are added to.)

84. The primary purpose of this passage is to:

A. compare different languages and different cultures
B. encourage people not to learn Japanese because it is extremely difficult
C. describe a problem and a possible solution
D. analyze the historical origins of Chinese
E. illustrate that Chinese is an easy language to learn for English speakers

85 According to the passage

A. Japanese is so difficult that people should not learn the language
B. People who speak multi-languages believe that Japanese is difficult
C. People who speak multi-languages think that Chinese is easy to learn
D. Defense Language Institute does not do a good job teaching people Japanese
E. Chinese is the easiest foreign language to learn for some people